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Because the longer users linger, the more ads they see. So directly or indirectly, accounts that help Instagram achieve that goal are rewarded. To help clear up misconceptions, in June Instagram invited journalists to a press briefing in San Francisco, where their product team explained how the algorithm works.

The algorithm also predicts which posts are important to users based on their past behaviour. This potentially includes the use of machine vision a. This is similar to how the Facebook algorithm and the YouTube algorithm filter and recommend content. So, users who like latte art are more likely to see latte art at the top of their feed. Users who like baby animals are more likely to see baby animals up there. The algorithm shows users newer posts first, according to this announcement from March Check out our deep dive on Instagram analytics , if you want some more guidance in this area.

This depends on how often a user opens the app. The algorithm aims to show users the best and most popular posts since they last looked at their feed. A user who spends 45 minutes on Instagram will go deeper into the back catalogue and see more posts by which we mean underperforming posts than a user who scans for 5 minutes, and catches only the greatest hits.

Users will continue to campaign, and journalists will continue to ask, but Instagram at least as of this writing stands firm. The algorithm is not capable of hiding your content without telling you. That said, sudden declines in engagement are definitely possible if your followers are annoyed by spammy practices. So pay attention to the community guidelines.

And definitely use Instagram hashtag best practices. This is the same story as the shadowban.

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Users who feel like their activities are toeing past the line of value and into spamminess feel guilty. Then they have paranoid fantasies that the algorithm—who is omniscient like Santa Claus—is persecuting them. Alas, no.

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The uppermiddle class Scarsdale kid, the Great Neck kid, who is wearing his pants baggy and hanging down, is emulating the hip-hop attitude. He is wearing the chains and all that kind of stuff and doing it on some level because there is a dynamic tension in that lifestyle. On some level it runs the risk of demeaning both the white kids and the African-American kids. The other is if you have dominant African-American casting, there would be the inference that …. PK: Correct, the product is an African-American appealing product rather than a mainstream product.

PK: I think they know that it is a mass-market product. There is far more multicultural advertising being created and run today than there was ten years ago, with multicultural agencies specializing in the African-American market, in the Asian market, in the Latino market.

I was asked by an interviewer if multicultural advertising will be the first to be cut in the current financial crisis. I suggested that it might be just the opposite. Multicultural marketing and Internet advertising have the ability to pinpoint audiences much more carefully than mass-market advertising. So in a tough economy it may make more sense to go to the more careful targeting than to the mass audience.

Take brand Pepsi, for example, which has spent huge money over the years in mainstream advertising but also spends significant amounts in multicultural advertising and has specific agencies that create advertising for those groups. In that African-American advertising, you will generally see all African-American casting. It may run in some of the mass channels but more likely it will run in the more targeted television media and print that the African-American population will more likely view and read in a more concentrated way.

One of the huge issues about areas of focus in media today is the ability to pinpoint audiences and to target audiences both in traditional media TV, print, radio as well as Internet media. With the proliferation of kid TV, adult advertising on the original three networks is more profitable at least in those early Saturday morning hours. PK: That opens up another major topic—the obesity epidemic. PK: One of the great ironies of the obesity epidemic is that in the first wave of it, the marketers were absolute deer in headlights.

In kid food advertising—just as in toy advertising—the advertising formulas are almost identical to what they have always been. Are kids eating more breakfast cereal than they did before? Are the ingredients worse? I was part of the Institute of Medicine report on food marketing to kids that became the published book Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity where we went back and looked at every major study that had been done about the link between advertising and obesity.

No linkage was found. No linkage at all. That notwithstanding, there has been a proliferation of different products, a change in convenience society, a proliferation of high-calorie packaged foods, an increase in portion sizes, a decrease in exercise, less focus on home cooking and balanced meals for the family, and America and the world have gotten fatter.

The first movement was the denial stage in concert with the identification of the problem. Frito Lay removed all the trans fats from their snack products. General Mills reformulated all of their cereals to be whole grain.

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We will take our full-sugared drinks out of high schools. Most companies have by now put similar product development policies in place. It will be the development of new foods, built from scratch, which are truly better for you. Not just taking out the bad stuff, but building goodness from the ground up.

Building better products for kids will need to meet a triple standard. Certainly the breakfast cereal business is that way. The fruit rollup type products where you play with your food and a lot of those successful kid foods. PK: And make money doing it, and—in some cases to your point—make more money doing it. Where do they put it? PK: Thank you for bringing me back to that. Tony the Tiger in a s Commercial These are changes in advertising that try to fit the times and show greater social awareness.

The marketing programs for a lot of the cereals today have reverted to some of the strategies that we saw 30 and 40 years ago, with mom being more fundamental to the equation. We are seeing more adult-directed TV and print advertising. Less focus on kids, per se. Mom plays a role in that. This s Commercial Is Directed to Children But what about larger systemic things, in terms of what children learn about adult behavior and adult marketing behavior through early exposure to advertising?

Is kids advertising training for a life of consumption? FYI… Bratz dolls have been controversial since their inception. PK: Yes, it is. Advertising is pervasive and kids see a lot of it whether it is targeted at them or not. Advertising in this country has always, on some level, been a training tool for product interest, if not desire.

They took on Barbie, and Barbie was controversial enough in her own right, right? She had bombshell measurements that very few human beings could ever have, yet a generation of moms grew up with Barbies. Then along come Bratz who were built to a different scale, shorter, bigger heads with a rude, hip-hop, overly made-up, scantily dressed attitude, very much the kind of Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, hotchick, pop-star kind of look that came in earlier this decade.

Is this a reflection of society or a projection of society? And in a world of hip-hop and rap and gangsta, the kind of rude teenage emulation and rebellion suggested by Bratz became quite appealing to a lot of young girls. And became very concerning to a lot of adults. It is teaching kids to be customers and consumers. To your point about Juliet Schor, this is a big piece of what alarms and concerns her, and Susan Linn as well, in looking to advance the idea of a commercial-free childhood. The conventional wisdom, as recently as ten years ago, was kids love advertising. Advertising is about all kinds of neat, cool, fun, delicious stuff.

This is a big deal to advertisers. The fastest way to kill a bad movie is negative word of mouth on a Monday morning. They put a lot of work into it, and their mom wanted money back for the supplies, and their experiences were not positive lessons about entrepreneurship but instead negative ones about capitalism. You work hard. And I wonder in a similar way, are the experiences that children have with advertising not just teaching them to be consumers, but teaching them to be incredibly cynical about what they get told?

PK: Work is hard.

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Commerce is hard. PK: They do learn that on some level. And the worst?

1. The History of Childhood

PK: Well, that was one of them. It shows an awareness of what parents go through. One of the changes has been a closer connection in the family—a genuine connection between mom, dad, and the kids and a greater awareness that kids have about the pressures on their parents. It can be financial or marital. The corollary is the worst thing about being a kid. School is number one. Kids were playing out this horrible drama.

Bottom line, kids do understand that economy, commerce, work, and world events are the purview of adults, a tough space and a tough place to be … but also that these are issues that affect their lives directly and indirectly. Where are we going? In eight more years what do you expect to be telling me then? Look at the election. I think that we have a much more aware population of kids today than ever before. Part of it is that information is everywhere. Snacking, overeating, portion sizes, and all of the critical issues related to a healthy lifestyle.

Research consistently shows that people who diet are seldom successful. We boomerang, gain and lose weight. The answer is going to be a new generation of balanced-lifestyle, balanceddiet kinds of people. If we can get the communication in place, I think that kids can lead that movement as well, just as they did with the Green movement. We have just achieved a remarkable milestone with the election of our first African-American president.

I think this portends all kinds of opportunity among and for kids. On the night of the election the shots of Harlem, the celebration in the streets, and around the world demonstrated a sense of new opportunity, a milestone in America turning a page on our shameful history relative to race. Kids of all ethnicities. They want change they can believe in. We talk a lot about ethnicity and multiracial attitudes. And in the research we asked kids how many of you have a friend of a different ethnicity. We know that America still has many relatively segregated communities.

But what is impressive is that the percentage is so big relative to access. These are very encouraging trends. WMO: What about getting the message to them? How has that changed? What do we see happening in the media in the near future and the way of communicating with kids? We are rapidly moving to a situation where advertising will be opt-in. That I will choose, even as a kid, I will choose the advertising that I want to see.

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It will come in all different forms. Television is a pristine medium at this point. It exists in time, the prevailing form is a second commercial, maybe 15 or We all know what that looks, acts, and feels like. The Internet is limitless in its possibilities and its forms. Just the other day, Motrin was Twittered to death because moms were offended by a message about pain management for mothers carrying their babies. Motrin immediately pulled the advertising and posted an apology for offending mothers.

It will come to us through increasingly sophisticated computers. This idea is very resonant with kids. My entertainment universe now and even my commercial universe are very empowering. Today media increasingly are two-way. I get an opportunity to talk back or to create. We have something called YouTube that is a mere three years old.

It has been a total game changer to the point where you do it, I do it, and I can pull up material like commercials I want to use in my class! They invited people to produce a Doritos commercial to run during the Super Bowl. The likelihood of winning is pretty remote, but the likelihood of Frito Lay getting many submissions is pretty great. There is another side to advertising to children that can easily dampen this optimism, and it is recurrent controversies surrounding children and advertising when the public decides that some advertisers have simply gone too far.

Kurnit discussed the current concern with advertising and its possible relationship to childhood obesity. In this section, two other significant controversies are discussed. The ads contained few words, but the American public quickly attributed a new trendiness to the familiar brand. Although Reynolds Tobacco maintained that the ads were targeted to young smokers of legal age, not young children, the criticism mounted. The Surgeon General and the American Medical Association called on Reynolds to stop using the cartoon-like character that necessarily attracted small children and got them interested in smoking, but the company refused.

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The positions of the critics and the tobacco company pitted fundamental propositions about advertising and society against one another. The tobacco company maintained that its goal was to induce smokers of other cigarette brands to switch to Camels and to reinforce the brand loyalty of Camel smokers. The advocacy groups, despite the lack of hard evidence that the ads induced children to take up smoking, nonetheless wanted the character banned on the grounds that it might have that effect.

The debate continued throughout the remainder of the ten years that Joe Camel appeared in the ads. Reynolds eventually replaced Joe Camel with a newer campaign for adults. The debate still exists as to whether children as recipients of ads and as real and potential consumers of products need to be treated differently from adult customers. Joe Camel was eventually phased out after 10 years for reasons other than the controversy, but he still survives as a popular collectible icon and a reminder of the debate.

This attention in turn gets a lot of free publicity, and the various controversies surrounding some Calvin Klein ads seem to have increased consumer demand rather than dampened it. Two notable campaigns featuring children as models in and not only produced publicity bonanzas for the company but brought the public, several advocacy groups, and the federal government to consider when the line between attention-grabbing fashion advertising and pornography is crossed.

The Media Awareness Network, a Canada-based advocacy group promoting critical media literacy, describes some of the Calvin Klein ads on its website:. The TV spots left little doubt that the images intended to imitate pornography. How old are you? Are you strong? You think you could rip that shirt off of you? You work out? I can tell. Three controversial photos appeared in full-page newspaper and magazine ads as well as a huge billboard in Times Square.

Experiment with mixing them both, to create a cohesive and compelling story. This will also help gain interest when you share on the social media sites. View the first seconds of your audience optimization report. I would recommend that you go through the minute course, by YouTube Creator Academy , for more information on making great thumbnails. Matthew Woodward uses a simple thumbnail template for his YouTube channel to quickly create attention-grabbing thumbnails.

He has grabbed a few key gradients that he uses to maintain consistency. You can create a similar template for yourself. Otherwise, consider purchasing the tubeslicer app. The last option for designing templates is to use custom dimensions inside Canva ,.

A great way to bolster your subscriptions and increasing YouTube engagement is by using annotations. Brian Dean uses annotation links at the end of his YouTube videos to speak directly to his target audience. YouTube also likes to see more interaction in the form of likes, comments and higher retention on the video. Brian tripled the number of likes on his video , in a week, by asking the user to like the video through annotation. Rosanna Pansino runs a YouTube channel on food. She uploaded more than cake, biscuit and cupcake recipes as part of her special nerdy mummy series.

At the end of every video, she presents end-card annotations, to get more follow-up viewership and increase her subscribers. If you want a step-by-step guide on adding annotations, then read this article. Video watch time is a key ranking factor for videos. With our decreasing attention spans, getting more people to stick around on your videos is a huge challenge. A user spends an average of 20 seconds on a web site. Here are three ways to improve your retention:. Remove your intro and outro sections. Get to the point and show your personality, to engage your viewers.

Weave a good story in your content. I mention some proven storytelling frameworks here. Gary Vaynerchuk shares personal stories to connect with his target audience. The longer your video, the lower its retention. After a huge initial drop-off, the majority of viewers that remain also stick around till the end. Brian Dean also found that longer videos rank higher in YouTube not valid for all kinds of videos though. He recommends a video length of at least 5 minutes. Another important aspect that you must remember, is the prominent use of mobile for watching videos on YouTube.

Optimizing your videos for the smaller screen is essential. In particular, annotations work in limited situations on mobile.