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Now, in order to ascend the Mount of Purgatory, he must be girded with a reed, clearly symbolizing humility, the opposite of his former self-confidence. It is mentioned belatedly and is never presented to view as a part of the topography; it is the mountain of Salvation, and its pres- ence is to be taken for granted'.

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Virgil and the Pilgrim, following the dark passage leading up out of Hell, had evidently emerged from an opening in the slope of the mountain, so close to the bottom that the descent to its foot and to the shore around it, which Cato now enjoins upon them, will amount simply to a token act suggestive of humility. When the Pilgrim came out upon the slope his first act, as we know, was to look up at the sky. Then he let his eyes rest on Cato's face: up to this point he has seen nothing of the landscape.

Our discussion of the elaborate description of the sky , beginning "The tender tint of orient sapphire" men- tioned the "new vocabulary" of the Purgatory to be found in the sensuous descriptions. Here, too, the Poet chooses from a new lexicon that could have no place in the Inferno: rippling waters , cool shade , dew ; note, too, the word "gently" , used of a human gesture, which perfectly cap- tures the mood of the lines describing natural phenomena. I, 29 ; there, too, a moun- tain of Hope, but one that appears suddenly, mysteriously, only to prove inaccessible.

Thus, the Pilgrim who reaches the shore to participate in the ritual that will pre- pare him for the ascent is very different from the figure who appears in the first canto of the Divine Comedy. But as he reaches this shore where the reeds of humility grow, a contrasting figure comes to mind: the mention of the lonely shore that never saw a man sail on its waters and return 1 32 is a clear evocation of the great ill-fated voyage of Ulysses, who, according to the story invented by Dante Inf. XXVI , dared to pass through the forbidden Pillars of Hercules into the unknown waters of the South Atlantic, where, finally, a storm sank his ship, not far from a dark mountain-island.

This must have been, according to Dante's geography, the same mountain of Purgatory, at whose foot the Pilgrim now finds himself, cleansed of the fumes of Hell and ready to ascend once he has been girded with the reed of humility. It was pre- cisely Ulysses' lack of humility that cut short his voyage just off the shores of Purgatory. That the voyage of Ulysses is meant to be seen as a foil to the progress of the Pilgrim is also shown by a verbal link be- tween the passage that closes Purg: I and the final lines of Inf.

XXVI: com' altrui piacque. The Pilgrim girds himself "as pleased Another" ; when Ulysses' ship goes down, the waters close over it "as pleased Another" Inf. XXVI, XXVI, but now approves of the Pilgrim's preparations in spite of his past follia, mentioned by Virgil to Cato here in line Though it is only at the end of this canto that we find a clear allusion to the voyage of Ulysses one recognized by most scholars , there is, perhaps, a suggestion of it at the very be- ginning: in the opening lines when the poet applies to himself the metaphor of a sea voyage in the "little bark of my poetic powers.

But Ulysses, too, had been blessed by a God-given talent — which, misdirected by his follia, led him to his destruction. And in these words, perhaps "lest talent speed where virtue does not guide" , we have in embryonic form that image of the "bark of my poetic powers," missing from the beginning of the Inferno and appearing full-fledged only in the opening lines of Purg. I — an image suggested by the experience of Ulysses. Now the absence of the image at the beginning of the Divine Comedy has already been attributed to the poet's modesty at this point.

But to explain its absence there is not to explain its pres- ence here; perhaps this image of a successful sea voyage would never have taken shape without the challenge of Ulysses' fail- ure. As such, they would form part of the "trace of filth" 96 that Cato urged be wiped away. For, according to Carroll p. When he pulled out the reed: The springing back of the reed is modeled on an episode in the sixth book of the Aeneid : the Sibyl tells Aeneas that, in preparation for his descent into the underworld, he must pluck a golden bough to carry with him as a kind of a passport — and no sooner is the bough pulled out than another springs up to take its place.

Similarly, here, the reed of humility is the Pilgrim's necessary passport to the mountain of Purgatory. This reminiscence of Aeneas at the end of the first canto of the Purgatory must remind the reader of the moving line in Inf. I Virgil had explained that he had been chosen by heavenly powers to guide the Pilgrim through Hell and Purgatory toward Paradise. The Pilgrim at first accepts the challenge of such a journey; later, his humility — or, as Virgil will call it, his cowardice — makes him recoil from the venture.

At the very beginning, Virgil has pre- sented himself to the Pilgrim as the creator of the pius Aeneas; now, in Inf. VI, the repetition of the miracle of the "plucked plant reborn," Dante intends to assure the reader of the success of his Pilgrim, to elevate him to the rank of that Aeneas he had earlier praised so highly. Thus it is with a reminder of the successful voyage of Aeneas, pre- ceded by a reminder of the tragic doom of Ulysses, that the first canto of Dante's Purgatory ends.

The light approaches at an incredible speed, and eventually they are able to discern the wings of an angel. The angel is the miraculous pilot of a ship containing souls of the Redeemed, who are singing the psalm In exitu Israel de Aegyplo. At a sign from the angel boatsman, these souls disembark, only to roam about on the shore. Ap- parently, they are strangers, and, mistaking Virgil and Dante for familiars of the place, they ask them which road leads up the mountainside. Virgil answers that they, too, are pilgrims, only recently arrived.

At this point some of the souls realize that the Pilgrim is still alive, and they stare at him in fascina- tion. Recognizing a face that he knows in this crowd of souls, Dante tries three times in vain to embrace the shade of his old friend Casella, a musician; then he asks Casella for a song and, as he sings, all the souls are held spellbound.

Suddenly the Just Old Man, Cato, appears to disperse the rapt crowd, sternly re- buking them for their negligence and exhorting them to run to the mountain to begin their ascent. The sun was touching the horizon now, the highest point of whose meridian arc was just above Jerusalem; and Night, ; revolving always opposite to him, rose from the Ganges with the Scales that fall out of her hand when she outweighs the day. My guide was silent all the while, but when the first two whitenesses turned into wings, and he saw who the steersman was, he cried: "Fall to your knees, fall to your knees!

Behold the angel of the Lord! And fold your hands. Expect to see more ministers like him. See how he scorns to use man's instruments; he needs no oars, no sails, only his wings to navigate between such distant shores. See how he has them pointing up to Heaven: he fans the air with these immortal plumes that do not moult as mortal feathers do.

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He steered straight to the shore, his boat so swift and light upon the wave, it left no sign of truly sailing there; and the celestial pilot stood astern with blessedness inscribed upon his face. More than a hundred souls were in his ship: In exitu Israel de Aegypto, they all were singing with a single voice, chanting it verse by verse until the end. The angel signed them with the holy cross, and they rushed from the ship onto the shore; he disappeared, swiftly, as he had come. The sun, which with its shafts of light had chased the Goat out of the heavens' highest field, was shooting rays of day throughout the sky, when those new souls looked up to where we were, and called to us: "If you should know the road that leads up to the mountainside, show us.

Just as a crowd, greedy for news, surrounds the messenger who bears the olive branch, and none too shy to elbow-in his way, so all the happy souls of these Redeemed stared at my face, forgetting, as it were, the way to go to make their beauty whole.

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One of these souls pushed forward, arms outstretched, and he appeared so eager to embrace me that his affection moved me to show mine. Three times I clasped my hands around his form, as many times they came back to my breast. Then, gently, he suggested I not try, and by his voice I knew who this shade was; I begged him stay and speak to me awhile. But tell me why you're here. But for the last three.

Now, back again he flies to Tiber's mouth, which is the meeting place of all the dead, except for those who sink to Acheron's shore. My master and myself and all those souls that came with him were deeply lost in joy, as if that sound were all that did exist. And while we stood enraptured by the sound of those sweet notes — a sudden cry: "What's this, you lazy souls? Run to the mountain, shed that slough which still does not let God be manifest to you! NOTES 1 The sun was touching the horizon now: Purgatory alone of the three realms of the otherworld exists in time.

Conse- quently, again and again we are made aware of time. In this learned periphrasis, the poet begins the canto by telling us, in a roundabout way, the time of day. On the globe as Dante conceived it, Jerusalem is the center of the known world, and Purgatory is directly opposite it. The westernmost point of the Hemisphere of Land is the Pillars of Hercules, just west of Spain, and the easternmost point of human habitation is the Ganges, which is in India.

Purgatory, Jerusalem, the Pillars of Hercules, and the Ganges were thought by Dante to share a common horizon. The horizon of any point on earth can be described by a circle perpendicular to that point's meridian circle, which is the circle passing through the point and the north and south poles see diagram. Thus the sun would move, according to Dante's conceptualization, on a line from the Ganges through Jerusalem to the Pillars of Her- cules, and around to Purgatory. Therefore, at the time the canto opens, it is midnight at the Ganges, sunset at Jerusalem, noon at the Pillars of Hercules, and dawn at Purgatory.

Dante further adds that the night is rising "with the Scales," that is, in the constellation of Libra. Libra is the constellation opposite Aries. Libra remains a night constellation until September 21, the autumnal equinox. On that day, the sun passes into Libra. The opening lines are written from the point of view of Jerusalem; this central position occupied by Jerusalem invites us to compare the Pilgrim's journey to Israel's journey out of Egypt, for the goal of that journey too was Jerusalem and the promised land.

I, , where the color reappears in the Pilgrim's cheeks as Virgil washes away the last stains of the Inferno. Here again, the verses sound the note of optimism and a new beginning. See how he scorns to use man's instruments: The oars and sails, the human instruments that the angel boatsman has re- placed with his wings, recall once again the ill-fated voyage of Ulysses, who says, "we made our oars our wings in that mad flight" Inf. The figure of the angel boatsman here suggests a contrast with Charon, the boatsman who appears at the corresponding stage in Inf.

The angel carries the souls of the Blessed to Purgatory, whereas Charon, who is called a "devil" , fer- ries the Damned across the river Acheron into Hell. Ill, 93 , when Charon realizes that Dante is not one of the souls of the Damned, but a living' man, he prophe- sies the Pilgrim's eventual salvation and passage to Purgatory, saying that he will be carried there by a "lighter skiff.

For Christians the Exodus, or liberation of the Jews, prefigures Christ's Resur- rection from the dead. In turn, his death and Resurrection served to free each individual Christian soul from the slavery of sin. Since at this point in the action of the poem it is Easter Sun- day morning, the very day of the Resurrection, the singing of this psalm is particularly appropriate, and the connection be- tween the Exodus and Resurrection is thus reinforced.

There will continue to be reminders of the Exodus and Resurrection in the Purgatory, whose subject is the laborious process by which the Pilgrim moves from the bondage and ignorance of sin to the freedom of grace and knowledge. In the Epistle to Can Grande della Scala, which serves as a sort of general introduction to the entire Comedy, Dante gives his own interpretation of this psalm-verse and the significance of the Exodus event: For the clarity of what will be said, it is to be understood that this work [the Comedy] is not simple, but rather it is polysemous, that is, endowed with many meanings.

The first is called "literal" and the second "allegorical" or "mystical. And although these mystical meanings are called by various names, in general they can all be called allegor- ical, inasmuch as they are different diversi from the literal or his- torical. For "allegoria" comes from "alleon" in Greek, which in Latin is alienum strange or diversum different. Exodus, with all its concomitant significance, is quite simply the figure or pattern for the action of the entire Comedy. Charon comes toward the Pilgrim and his guide screaming, "Woe to you perverted souls!

Moreover, the souls of the Damned, whom Charon takes away in his boat, far from singing, curse God, their mothers and fathers, and the human race III, The sun. Because of the sun's ever-increasing light, Capricorn is now invisible. In other words, the daylight is getting stronger. If you should know the road: In Virgil's words we have the image of the Christian soul as pilgrim travelling from death to life, from sin to grace; this is a commonplace in patristic thought and derives ultimately from the story of the Exodus.

Later, when the sun has risen higher, it will be the ability of the Pilgrim's body to cast a shadow that serves as a key motif in the Antepurgatory. Though', they do nothing but stare, motionless, their curiosity is compared to that of an eager crowd surrounding the bearer of news, pushing and shoving. Heedless of everything but this newly discovered marvel, the souls forget the purpose of their journey, which should remain always uppermost in their minds " They should be thinking only of purifying their souls.

This was a practice inherited from Roman antiquity. Documents mentioning his name indicate that he was a Florentine, though the commentary of the Anonimo fiorentino fourteenth century refers to him as "Casella da Pistoja. Since Casella was a singer, it is appropriate that Dante rec- ognize him by his voice But for the last three months: The change in attitude on the part of the angel-pilot, mentioned by Casella, is generally understood in light of the fact that in , during the great Jubilee Year, Pope Boniface VIII granted a plenary indulgence to those participating in a pilgrimage to Rome.

This papal bull makes no' mention of any special indulgence for the souls of the dead, but Dante here seems to be following a common belief that it did. This is never explained. See Porena, p. Actually, all souls that have not been damned gather there, according to Casella; this. Ostia was the seaport of Rome, and Rome was a natural point of departure for the souls of the Blessed since it was the center of the church. According to the teachings of St. I, i:. Consequently, it must remain restless until united with Him after death in the Beatific Vision. Aesthetic pleasure may seem to set the heart at rest, but such pleasure is fallacious and is to be avoided as a distraction from the journey to God.

Amor che ne la mente mi ragiona "Love that speaks to me in my mind" : The first verse of the second canzone, which Dante comments on in the third book of his Convivio. For a discussion of Casella's song, see Freccero. My master and myself and all those souls: Again the souls are distracted from their journey, and this time the Pilgrim, together with Virgil, shares their mood of utter absorption.

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But this scene is described by the poet rather sympathetically: he emphasizes the beauty of the music; he seems to treat respect- fully the sensitive receptivity of the audience — which con- tained perhaps a few souls destined for Heaven, as well as Vir- gil and the Pilgrim, both exemplary figures — a distinguished group committing a "distinguished sin. Perhaps Dante, who loved the arts, allowed himself to be lenient here in his treatment of this mass reaction of self- indulgence — knowing that Cato would come two lines later to utterly condemn these souls.

Cato's anger at the souls who have momentarily forgotten God may remind one of the anger of Moses, who, coming down from the mountain with the tablets of the Law, found the Jews worshipping a golden calf.

For another parallel between Cato and Moses, see note to Purg. I, Of course, the two instances of defection are not of the same degree of gravity; indeed, the reader may feel that Cato's angry words to the newly arrived, confused, leaderless group are un- duly severe. In fact, there can be no doubt that his advice to them, "Run to the Mountain, shed that slough.

But Dante evidently found it fitting that the newly arrived souls hear words that would shake them to their depths, and he chose Cato to deliver them — this pagan soul of harshly un- compromising, impatient idealism, who took his own life rather than compromise. If Dante once wrote that Cato was perhaps worthy to represent God Himself see note to I, , he may have been thinking of the Old Testamentary Jehovah, given to wrath. That the poet assigns to Cato the task of rebuking the self- indulgent souls makes still more difficult the solution of what would have been a difficult problem anyway: since the poem sung by Casella for the delight of the group was written by the younger Dante, one may wonder if criticism of the souls' be- havior is not also intended as criticism of the type of poetry that Dante used to write.

But, even granted we were sure just how to classify Amor che ne la mente- mi ragiona cited in verse 1 12 of this canto , why should Dante's earlier poetry concern Cato? For further discussion of Cato's rebuke, see Hollander. The image here is one of abandoning the old ways and adopting the new. It is an image of rebirth that works well with the resurrection and dawn motifs that run through the first two cantos. But they re- sume their journey and Dante raises his eyes to take in the enormous height of the mountain that stretches up toward Heaven.

Then, looking down, he sees his own shadow on the ground in front. This leads to an explanation by Virgil of the diaphanous bodies of the dead: though a shade casts no shadow, it is yet sensitive to pain and heat and cold; such is the mysterious will of the Creator, which cannot be understood by human reason. In the meantime, they have reached the foot of the mountain but find the slope impossible to scale because it is too steep.

They then see a band of souls moving toward them with unbelievable slowness, and they set out to meet them in order to ask directions. The souls are amazed to see the Pil- grim's shadow; their spokesman, Manfred, explains that, de- spite his excommunication by the church, he has been saved through everlasting love by repenting at the very end of his life.

Because of this delay, however, he is required to wait in the Antepurgatory thirty times as long as he waited on earth to repent — though this period can be shortened by the good prayers of the faithful in the world. In sudden flight those souls were scattering, rushing across the plain and toward the hill where Reason spurs the probing of the soul, 3 but I drew closer to my faithful friend. And where could I have run without his help? Who else but he could take me up the mount?

If now I cast no shadow on the ground, you should not be surprised. Think of the spheres: not one of them obstructs the others' light. If you knew everything, no need for Mary to have borne a son. You'll see some people coming who should know the way — if you have not yet found it by yourself. But when the souls in front saw the sun's light was broken on the ground to my right side, my shadow stretching to the rising cliff, they stopped, and started slowly shrinking back; all of the rest that followed on their heels did as they did, not knowing why they did.

But, this should not startle you; you can be sure that not without the power coming from Heaven does he come here seeking to scale this wall. And that worthy group, with gesturing hands that urged us to turn round, replied: "Go lead the way ahead of us. When I, in all humility, confessed I did not recognize him, he said: "Look," as he revealed a gash above his breast.

Then with a smile he said, "Manfred I am, grandson of Empress Constance, and I beg you, when you are with the living once again, go to my lovely child, mother of kings who honor Sicily and Aragon; whatever may be rumored, tell her this: As I lay there, my body torn by these two mortal wounds, weeping, I gave my soul to Him Who grants forgiveness willingly.

NOTES 5. I, 1 1 5 - 36 that he finds himself now in the same situation that he was in at the beginning of the Inferno: at the foot of a mountain he wished to climb cf. The sun behind us: The two poets have begun their jour- ney on the eastern side of the island; the recently risen sun lies behind them as they turn to face the mountain. The theme of Dante's shadow begins in these lines, with his first experience since emerging from Hell of seeing before him the shadow his body has cast, and continues in the next line with his momen- tary alarm at failing to see Virgil's shadow.

From now on the Pilgrim's shadow will distinguish him from the other souls in Purgatory, as his breathing did in the dim light of Purg. II The shadow seems to represent all the earthly vanities to which living men are attached. This mention of the transfer of Virgil's body is a preparation for Manfred, whose body, he will tell us , was disin- terred and taken outside of the kingdom of Naples.

The sep- aration of body and soul 26 is a recurrent theme in the Antepurgatory. Anticipation of the Last Day, when soul and glorified body will be reunited, has appeared in connection with Cato Purg. As for Virgil's terminology, Carroll p. It is op- posed to the quid, the thing which is demonstrated by its final cause. Dante's meaning is that human reason, being powerless to penetrate to the essence or quiddity, must remain contented with the quia, the fact as seen in its effects.

Had they been able to know Christ, they would have been taken by Him into Heaven, where, among the elect, their every intellec- tual desire would finally have been satisfied in the contempla- tion of the Beatific Vision. Virgil's anguished meditation is brought on by the realization that he too, along with Aristotle and Plato, is one of these souls eternally condemned to hope- less longing cf. In the course of the Purgatory, Virgil will become an increasingly pathetic figure. Turbia and Lerici: Both towns are located on the Italian Riviera.

Between these two towns along the coast, the mountains descend abruptly — indeed, perpen- dicularly — into the sea, making passage all but impossible. While he was standing there: Virgil looks down and within himself in search of the right way. The Pilgrim looks up and about, outside of himself. Thus he sees a potential source of aid coming down the road, which Virgil, scrutinizing only his own rational faculties, fails to find. The journey up the mountain of Purgatory will demand a certain openness, as well as faith and trust.

Moreover, this group does move, does go forward, while the group next to be seen cannot manage to get on their feet. What is puzzling is the slowness with which they show their reaction: the two travellers, surely in sight of them, had covered one thousand paces walking toward them before they stop to huddle and to stare. As sheep will often start to leave the fold: The Excommuni- cated souls are presented as sheep, and the comparison has a double force. In the first place, since they chose to live their lives without the spiritual guidance of the church, they now have no leader, no shepherd, but blindly follow the sheep in front without knowing why.

In the second place, this slow for- ward movement without knowing the way is in fact the virtue of faith as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas. Thus, these souls carry out Virgil's earlier admonition 37 to be content with the quia, without knowing the why or how. But when the souls in front saw the sun's light: That the souls are amazed when they see that the Pilgrim's body casts a shadow is to be expected.

This phenomenon could not occur in Hell; nevertheless, we are made aware that the Pilgrim still has his mortal body in the Inferno by the fact that his weight makes a boat settle in the water, his foot dislodges a stone, and he accidentally kicks one of the Damned in the head. Ac- cording to Castelvetro, the backs of these souls' hands -are fac- ing the Pilgrim and his guide because "when we call a person to us we indicate this to him with the palm of our hand, and when we would have him depart from us we gesture with the back of our hand.

XXV, to explain how or why Manfred bears his mortal wounds in the afterlife. Manfred 1 am: Manfred was the natural son of Frederick II, who legitimized him and stipulated that he should be regent during the reign of his half-brother, Conrad IV. At Conrad's death, Manfred once more assumed regency, as Conrad's son, Conradin, was an infant.

Upon a rumor of Conradin's death, Manfred was made king of Sicily. He was a Ghibelline and an excommunicate in fact, he had been ex- communicated twice, by Alexander IV and Urban IV , and Urban could not bear to see him occupy the throne. Charles decided immediately to take possession of his kingdom and waged a fierce attack against Manfred.

Betrayed by his followers and outnumbered by the French, Manfred was killed at the battle of Benevento in After the battle, Charles refused Manfred's body honorable burial in consecrated ground because he had been excommuni- cated. Instead, he had him buried near the bridge at Bene- vento, where his army filed past, each dropping a stone upon the grave so that a huge cairn was formed. Later, however, Pope Clement IV insisted that Manfred's body be disinterred and moved outside the limits of the kingdom of Naples and thus outside church territory.

The body was then thrown on the banks of the river Verde and left unburied. One may compare the ignominious transportation of Man- fred's body with the glorious and respectful removal of Virgil's body by imperial order from Brindisi to Naples III, Ironically, however, despite the earthly glory accorded him, Virgil is numbered among the Damned, while Manfred is among the Blessed.

Since Man- fred is the natural son of Frederick, he identifies himself with reference to his paternal grandmother. Horrible was the nature of my sins: Manfred was said by his enemies to have murdered his father, his brother Conrad, and two of his nephews, and to have attempted to murder his young nephew, Conradin. In any case, the archbishop re- ferred to here had Manfred's body disinterred on the order of Pope Clement IV and cast outside church territory see note to III, Manfred's hope and faith at the end of his life have brought him to Purgatory and allow him to smile as he tells the gruesome story of his death and the vindictiveness of the pope.

This doctrine will be repeated and refined in the cantos that follow. Constance: Manfred's daughter, who died in , at Barcelona. Her mother was Beatrice of Savoy. The climb is arduous, and they must use both hands and feet in making their way. When they finally reach a ledge, the Pilgrim is exhausted and they stop to rest. He is puzzled by the fact that the sun is on their left, and Virgil explains that this phenomenon is due to the geographical location of the mountain of Purgatory.

Fur- thermore, he adds, the mountain is such that it is most difficult to climb at the beginning but becomes easier and easier, until at last it requires no effort. Their conversation, however, has been overheard and is interrupted by a sarcastic remark from behind a massive rock. The speaker is Belacqua, an old friend of the Poet's, who, together with the other souls on this level, belongs to the second class of the Late Repentant: the Indolent. They must wait outside the gates of Purgatory proper for as many years as they put off repentance on earth.

Belacqua repeats the doctrine that prayer can shorten their period of waiting, adding the qualification that it must be prayer from a heart in the state of grace. When any of our senses is aroused to intensity of pleasure or of pain, the soul gives itself up to that one sense, 3 oblivious to all its other powers. This fact serves to refute the false belief that in our bodies more than one soul burns.

Up to San Leo, down to Noli, climb, climb to the top of Mount Bismantova on your two feet, but here a man must fly: yes, fly — that is to say, with the swift wings of strong desire, and following that guide who gave me hope, spreading his light before me. Squeezed in between the tight walls of the pass, we struggled upward through that broken rock, using our hands and feet to climb the ground.

Once we were through that narrow passageway up the high cliff and on an open slope, "Master," I said, "where must we go from here? I felt my strength drain from me, and I cried: "O my sweet father, turn and look at me; unless you slow your pace, you'll lose me here. His words were like a goad, and I strained on behind him, climbing with my hands and knees until I felt the ledge beneath my feet. I looked down at the shoreline far below, and then looked up: the sun, amazingly, was shining to the left of us.

The Poet was well aware that I was stupefied as I observed the chatiot of light making its course between us and the north. If you would understand how this may be, try to imagine Zion and this Mount located on the earth in such a way that while each lies in different hemispheres, the two of them share one horizon; then, the lofty path, which Phaeton's chariot could not hold fast to, had to pass this height on one side here, but on the other there — as you must see, if you think carefully.

But would you kindly tell me, if you please, how much more climbing we must do: this peak soars higher than my eyes can see. I say no more, and what I said is true. We went up to the boulder and, behind, there were some people hidden in its shade: so many sprawling shapes of indolence.

There was one there who, you could tell, was tired, for he sat with his arms hugging his knees, letting his head droop down between his legs. Lazier he could not look, not even if 'Lazy' were his middle name. Exhausted, out of breath, nevertheless, I struggled toward him. Finally, when I stood by his side, he raised his head a bit and said: "Is it quite clear to you by now just why the sun drives past you on the left?

But tell me why are you just sitting like this? Waiting for a guide? Or simply being your old self again? When any of our senses is aroused: Dante here refutes the idea that man possesses more than one soul. The idea of multiple souls was set forth by Aristotle, who maintained that man had three souls existing in a kind of hierarchical arrange- ment: the vegetative soul, through which growth was exhibited, the sentient soul, which governed sensation and movement, and the rational soul, which gave rise to man's capacity for rea- son.

These souls were differentiated from one another by their degrees of heat, the vegetative soul having the lowest heat and the rational the highest heat. Thomas Aquinas consolidated Aristotle's idea with Christian doctrine by maintaining that the soul is a unity endowed with three faculties, which he called "virtues" or "powers": the veg- etative, the sensitive, and the intellective Summa Theol.

If the soul becomes completely or strongly drawn toward one of these powers, it must of necessity neglect the others.

Dance in Purgatory: László Krasznahorkai’s Satantango

In each instance he becomes so completely absorbed in his interlocutor that he completely forgets the purpose of his journey and its overriding impor- tance. And I was now experiencing this truth: He has experi- enced the truth just demonstrated, which is that he has one soul with a set of faculties, and that the preoccupation of one faculty with a given situation or issue necessitates that the other two faculties be ignored.

In this particular instance, Dante has become so absorbed in conversation with Manfred that he has not noticed the passing of time see note to IV, 1 5. If the sun has risen fifty degrees, then three hours and twenty minutes have passed since sunrise. The "question" answered here was asked by Virgil in III, , and the unexpectedness with which the reply finally comes, nearly seventy lines later and in a different canto, serves to remind us in a rather abrupt way that Manfred's lengthy account, as well as the philosophical explanation that begins this canto, has been an element of di- gression delaying the forward movement of the narrative, i.

Somehow we are reminded of the effect of Cato's words at the end of Canto II. San Leo. Bismantova: These are names of towns that are accessible only with great difficulty. San Leo is located on an extremely steep and rugged hill in the mountain- ous district of Montefeltro, near San Marino. Bismantova was a small town on a steep, flat-topped mountain of the same name, about twenty miles south of Reggio. In the Middle Ages it was strongly fortified and could be reached only by a single tortuous path; now only the bare mountain remains.

The levels and precipices of Purgatory are also accessible only with difficulty, but the difficulty is of a different sort, which Dante explains in the following lines. Although he is still weighed down by the gravity of sin and unable to fly at this point, the Pilgrim begins to feel the need and the desire to do so.

Finally, after being cleansed of his sins in the Earthly Paradise, he, in the company of Bea- trice, will ascend, swiftly and effortlessly, from sphere to heavenly sphere. There are three possible guesses: "do not slow down," or "do not turn back," or "do not turn left or right. Accustomed to the celestial phenomena of the Northern Hemisphere, he would naturally expect to find the sun to the south. Virgil pedantically explains that, since it is now March, the sun is in Aries.

However, if it were June, when the sun is in Castor and Pollux, the Pilgrim could expect to see the sun even farther to the north, near the Big and Little Bears. Since they are located di- rectly opposite one another, they would share the same hori- zon, the line along which the sun travels; hence, if from Jerusalem in the Northern Hemisphere the sun appears to move from left to right, then from the mountain of Purgatory in the Southern Hemisphere it must of necessity appear to move from right to left.

Just as the Pilgrim's eyes move from "the shoreline far be- low" 55 to the sun, so our attention is directed from the earth heavenward, toward the sun and the stars. And the mention of Zion 68 ff.

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Castor and Pollux: The constellation of Gemini. The two were twin brothers hatched from the same egg after Leda was visited by the god Jupiter in the form of a swan. When the twins died Jupiter placed them in the heavens, among the stars. Phaeton's chariot: The sun. Having gained permission from his father, Apollo, to guide the chariot of the sun, Phaeton lost control of the horses.

To prevent a catastrophe Jupiter struck down Phaeton with a thunderbolt. Dante refers to the story again in Inf. XVII, ; Purg. XXIX, 1 ; and Par. XXXI, In this reference to Phaeton, as in the reference earlier to the Gemini, we have illustrations of Dante's didactic use of mythi- cal figures. The apotheosis of Castor and Pollux, as well as the privileged position that they enjoy "in the company of that great mirror" 62 , i. On the other hand, the allusion to the failure of Phaeton functions as a dire reminder of the catastrophic end that awaits those who fail to keep to that "lofty path" Is it quite clear to you by now: Belacqua is openly mocking Virgil's erudite discourse.

Belacqua: A Florentine lute-maker and friend of Dante's, famous for his indolence; indeed, not only his posture here, not only the sentiments he expresses, but also his laconic speech accord well with the laziness for which he was well known. It is interesting to note that of the first two friends whom the Pilgrim meets in Purgatory, Casella is a musician and Belacqua a maker of musical instruments.

Prayers could: Again, the theme of intercession cf. Ill, ; this time, however, the doctrine is made more specific, as Belacqua states that only prayers from a heart in the state of grace can be effective in helping the souls in Purgatory. Heaven's highest point: Since the beginning of the canto, the sun has reached the meridian of Purgatory, which would make the time there noon.

Morocco, for Dante part of the westernmost area of human habitation, would be experienc- ing dusk P. Virgil upbraids him for lagging behind and warns him against losing sight of his true goal. As they continue upward, they encounter a group of souls chanting the Miserere. They are the third class of the Late Repentant: those who died a violent death but man- aged to repent in their final moments. The first soul to come forward and speak is Jacopo del Cassero of Fano, "who tells how he was ambushed and left to bleed to death in a swamp.

Next comes Buonconte of Montefeltro. At his death there ensued a struggle between the powers of good and evil for his soul; since he had uttered the name of Mary with his dying breath and shed a tear of true repentance, the heavenly faction prevailed and bore his soul off to Paradise.

But a demon took possession of his corpse and played havoc with it: he conjured up a storm and sent the mortal remains plummeting down the raging and swollen river channels. Finally La Pia steps forth and gently asks Dante to remember her. I had already parted from those shades, following in the footsteps of my guide, when one of them back there, pointed and called: j "That soul climbing behind the other one! To his left no light is shining through! He seems to walk as if he were alive! I said it, and my face took on the color that makes a man deserve to be excused. Meanwhile, across the slope ahead of us, people were passing, chanting Miserere, singing the psalm in alternating parts.

But when they noticed that the rays of light did not shine through my human form, they changed their chanting to a drawn-out, breathless "Ohhh! Oh, wait! Where are you going? Oh, please stop! But, O souls, born for bliss, if there is some way I can please you now, tell me, and' I will do so — by that peace which I go searching for while following from world to world so great a guide as this.

Now, speaking for myself, I will plead first: if ever you should travel to the land between Romagna and the realm of Charles, I beg you, be so gracious as to ask the souls in Fano to say prayers for me, that I may soon begin to purge my guilt. I came from Fano, but the deep-cut wounds from which I saw my life's blood spilling out, were dealt me in the Antenori's land — the land where I believed I was most safe. Azzo of Este had me killed his hatred for me reached far beyond all reason's bounds.

If only I had fled toward Mira when at Oriaco they took me by surprise, I still would be with men who live and breathe; instead, I ran into the swampy mire: the reeds entangled me; I fell, and there I watched a pool of blood fill from my veins. Beyond, it takes another name, and there I made my way, my throat an open wound, fleeing on foot, and bloodying the plain.

There 1 went blind. I could no longer speak, but as I died, I murmured Mary's name, and there I fell and left my empty flesh. Now hear the truth. Tell it to living men: God's angel took me up, and Hell's fiend cried: 'O you from Heaven, why steal what is mine? You may be getting his immortal part — and won it for a measly tear, at that, but for his body I have other plans!

To that ill will, intent on evilness, he joined intelligence and, by that power within his nature, stirred up mist and wind, until the valley, by the end of day, from Pratomagno to the mountain chain, was fogbound. With dense clouds he charged the sky: the saturated air turned into rain; water poured down, and what the sodden ground rejected filled and overflowed the deepest gullies, whose spilling waters came to join and form great torrents rushing violently, relentlessly, to reach the royal stream.

I am called Pia. Siena gave me life, Maremma death, as he knows who began it when he put ij5 his gem upon my finger, pledging faith. Evidently, Dante the Pilgrim, on hearing their words of amazement, turns around to face them and sees a finger pointing at him; Dante the Narrator takes advantage of his omniscience to predicate the gesture at the appropriate moment in the narrative flow. The Pilgrim, too easily impressed by the interest shown in him, allows himself once more to forget the impor- tance of moving ahead in his journey — until the reproachful platitudes of Virgil bring a blush to his face.

Miserere: The opening word of Psalm 50, a prayer that asks God for forgiveness of sins and the purification of the soul of the sinner. Each group of souls in Antepurgatory and Purgatory proper will have its own particular prayer, with the exception of the Excommunicated and the Indolent. The speed that will be everywhere apparent reflects, somehow, the violent deaths and hurried last repentances of the souls in this circle. The three speakers in the canto follow each other in rapid succession, with little or no intervention on the part of the narrator be- tween their speeches.

This passage also serves as preparation for the violent storm that is to sweep off Buonconte's body later on in this canto Actually, it is the Pilgrim and his guide who are relentless in their forward movement. One soul replied: The speaker, who is not named in the canto, is Jacopo del Cassero. In , while en route to Milan to assume the office of podesta there, Jacopo was set upon and brutally murdered by Azzo's henchmen at Oriago, a town on the river Brenta be- tween Venice and Padova.

He is the first of the three speakers in this canto who died a violent death. Ill, ; IV, - XXXII, It was believed that he murdered his own father, Obizzo, suffocating him with a pillow. Dante mentions him in an invective against degenerate princes in De vulg. I, xii, 38, and probably is refer- ring to him in Inf. Mir a: A small town between Oriago and Padova, located on a canal fed by the Brenta. In he led the forces of the Ghibellines of Arezzo against the Florentine Guelphs in the battle of Campaldino.

Guido's side suffered defeat and he was slain. His body was never found. Archiano: A tributary of the Arno. God's angel took me up, and Hell's fiend cried: There is a similar struggle between the powers of good and evil for the soul of Guido of Montefeltro, Buonconte's father Inf. It is impossible to overlook the didactic comparison that Dante draws by juxtaposing these two figures: Guido in his later years took what he thought to be the necessary steps to assure his salvation but unfortunately overlooked the one thing that was truly necessary — sincere repentance.

Buonconte, on the other hand, though he waited until the last possible mo- ment to repent, was saved because he shed tears of true contri- tion. The son's salvation mocks the vain efforts of the father. Pratomagno: A locale near Arezzo on the Arno, now called Pratovecchio. Pia's brief speech shows her to be well bred, gentle, and considerate, as she asks the Pilgrim to remember her only after he has rested from his long journey.

Her nobility and her ele- gance of speech, manifest in these few lines, recall the figure of Francesca of Rimini Inf. V , if for no other reason than the fact that she is the first and only other woman allowed to speak to the Pilgrim thus far in the Divine Comedy. While Pia's speech is extremely short — her whole life summed up in a single deca- syllabic! Take, for example, Pia's simple, unpretentious assertion, "Siena gave me life. V, informs the Pilgrim of her birthplace, it is in almost epic strains: The place where I was born lies on the shore where the river Po with its attendant streams descends to seek its final resting place.

It is precisely Francesca's constant self-assertion, her hunger for attention and appreciation, that stands out so strikingly against the tender self-effacement of La Pia. The contrast in the dispositions of these two women is further underlined and given a moral dimension by their positions in Hell and Purga- tory, respectively. For a more detailed analysis of the character of Francesca da Rimini see Musa , pp. Maremma: As with the other speeches of this canto, even the brief words of Pia contain references to geo- graphical areas. The frequent and often detailed references to earthly geography throughout this canto underline the attach- ment still felt by the dwellers in the Antepurgatory to the scenes of their life on earth.

As he frees himself from this encumbering crowd of shades, the Pilgrim asks Virgil about the power of prayer to affect the will of Heaven. Virgil gives a partial explanation and tells the Pilgrim that he will have to wait until Beatrice gives him a more comprehensive elucidation of the matter.

Noting a figure seated in silence not far away, Virgil and the Pilgrim go up to him to ask directions; upon learning that Virgil is a Mantuan by birth, the stranger embraces him. It is the shade of Sordello. At this point there is a break in the action of the poem, and Dante inveighs at length against the evil and corruption of Italy.

The loser, when a game of dice breaks up, despondent, often lingers there as he, learning the hard way, replays all his throws. And while still here on earth, the Lady of Brabant might well take care lest she end up in fouler flock. Once I had freed myself from all those shades who prayed only that others pray for them and thus quicken their way to bliss, I said: "It seems to me that somewhere in your verse, you, O my Light, deny explicitly the power of prayer to bend the laws of Heaven; yet these souls ask precisely for such prayers.

Does this, then, mean their hopes are all in vain? Or have I failed to understand your words? High justice would in no way be debased if ardent love should cancel instantly the debt these penitents must satisfy. The words of mine you cite apply alone to those whose sins could not be purged by prayer, because their prayers had no access to God. Do not try to resolve so deep a doubt; wait until she shall make it clearer — she, the light between truth and intelligence. You understand me: I mean Beatrice, she will appear upon this mountain top; you will behold her smiling in her bliss.

The mountain casts a shadow now. But see that spirit stationed over there, all by himself, the one who looks at us; he will show us the quickest way to go. O Lombard soul, how stately and disdainful you appeared, what majesty was in your steady gaze! He did not say a word to us, but let us keep on moving up toward him, while he was watching like a couchant lion on guard. But Virgil went straight up to him and asked directions for the best way to ascend.

The shade ignored the question put to him, asking of us, instead, where we were born and who we were. My gentle guide began: "Mantua Ah, slavish Italy, the home of grief, ship without pilot caught in a raging storm, no queen of provinces — whorehouse of shame! How quick that noble soul was to respond to the mere sound of his sweet city's name, by welcoming his fellow citizen — while, now, no one within your bounds knows rest from war, and those enclosed by the same wall and moat, even they are at each other's throats!

O wretched Italy, search all your coasts, probe to your very center: can you find within you any part that is at peace? What matter if Justinian repaired the bridle — if the saddle's empty now! The shame would have been less if he had not. O German Albert, you abandon her, allowing her, ungoverned, to run wild.

You should have been astride her saddle-bow! Let a just judgment fall down from the stars upon your house: one unmistakable and strange enough to terrify your heir! You and your sire, whom greed for greater wealth holds back up there, have let this come to pas. Come see the Cappelletti, callous heart, see the Monaldi, the Montecchi ruined, the Filippeschi fearful of their fate.

Why Shakespeare remains the necessary poet.

Come, heartless one, come see your noblemen who suffer; help them heal their wounds; come see how safe it is to dwell in Santafior. Come see your city, Rome, in mourning now, widowed, alone, lamenting night and day: "My Caesar, why have you abandoned me? If you cannot be moved to pity us, then come and feel the shame your name has earned!

O Jove Supreme, crucified here on earth for all mankind, have I the right to ask if Your just eyes no longer look on us? Or is this part of a great plan conceived in Your deep intellect, to some good end that we are powerless to understand? For all the towns of Italy are filled with tyrants: any dolt who plays the role of partisan can pass for a Marcellus.

How happy you must be with this digression, for you're not involved — thank your resourceful citizens for that! The facts bear out the truth of what I say. The loser, when a game of dice breaks up: As Dante the Pilgrim walks away from Jacopo, Buonconte, and La Pia, he is surrounded by souls, each of whom wishes to detain him and gain that moment of recognition that would enable this living man who travels through their realm to request prayer among the living for him.

You can also take the ISBN numbers into your local book store and they can order them for you as well. As gifted as Shannon is being a psychic medium, she is also a Four Star author and an award winning poet. Shannon has been writing poetry and stories her entire life, and her goals are to publish two children's books she has written, Timid Tina and Scaredy Cow, and Cassie the Artist.

Shannon is also working on To Run The River, and it contains her unique philosophy about overcoming life's challenges such as enduring over a dozen surgeries, suffering from fibromyalgia, and living with numerous other health problems. In spite of these medical set-backs, Shannon still chooses to live a positive and magical life.

Living Beyond Existence-Kirby's Gift from the Afterlife is the true story about how in October of , Bryon's deceased cousin Kirby channeled through his psychic medium wife Shannon for five hours during a reading which resulted in the book that may just possibly change your understanding of life and in the way that you live it.

A wide variety of other poetry categories were written as well. Bryon's other "gifts from Kirby" includes a 16 book children's series titled Trolley the Tarantula. A spiritual drama titled The Ethereals. A paranormal murder mystery titled The Moaning Diaries. Which would be based on Bryon and his Grandson.